1. A term for the number of warps within the construction–per centimeter or between selvedges

2. The filling of a cushion or window seat or other pad. The filling is chosen to make the cushion pad  harder or softer, heavy or light, thick or thin, sumptuous or monastic.

The result is  dependent  on the types of material and the generosity of them. Broadly speaking the categories are:

Beans: polyester balls for bean bags etc. Good for outdoors  and children, but they are noisy.

Cashmere: ditto

Coconut fibre: good as a pre-formed pad that can be built up in layers,then wrapped,  for window seats etc.

Re-cycled fabric or wool: makes a solid  and soft pad but heavy and not that responsive.

Feather and down:  mixed in varying proportions to best suit the end use- sofa and armchair back or seat cushions, scatter cushions, window seats, comforters, bolsters, garden cushions. Can be problematic for those with allergic reaction – although it’s usually  the feather and not the down that causes the problem. Feather and down can always be plumped to revive.

Fibre: a sort of polyester extrusion that is cheap, looks OK ( never more than that as it doesn’tt get into the corners and has no life )  for a while, then flattens to a lumpy ugly mass. Cheap enough to replace, non allergenic and good for outside by season.

Foam: as slabs very uncomfortable- too hard or too soft. As engineered three- core product, very good,  comfortable and keeps its’ shape, in chair seats particularly.

Foam chip: as a pad can work well over wooden slats, as loose filling  it never quite settles, or revives.

Horsehair: traditional method of stitching hair to make a pad, covered with ticking or canvas and softened or not with a wrap of cotton wadding.

Wool:  wool pads are following on from  wool duvets and have great potential, still some work to do before they work entirely. Hypo allergenic.

Wraps: feather and down, or wool or down around a three core foam cushion perhaps the best compromise of all.

See also:  foam, feather and down, chair seats

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