Textiles are made by interweaving horizontal and vertical yarns–these vertical yarns are called warps. To make each new length of fabric, a weaving loom must first be set up with fixed warp yarns–this is a highly skilled process involving much planning beforehand, and a complex design can take an experienced hand loom weaver several days
* As warps are nothing without wefts and the point is to make a woven cloth :
* The very simplest weave involves fixing a row of evenly spaced plain warp threads to a frame and interweaving them with weft threads in an over-one, under-one rhythm; starting from right to left, wrapping around the left end warp then back again from left to right, reversing the order, And so on, until a woven length of fabric has been created.
* Many of the primitive hand held or back strap weaving looms are this simple. The narrow strips of fabric thus woven in traditional local colourings and patterns are afterwards joined together to make wider pieces – of any width.
* A complex weave might require two or more layers of warp threads, which then serve various functions. A first layer will create a back cloth, and one or more extra layers (sometimes called stuffer, filler, or pile warps)can either: create a stronger and stiffer fabric, provide the filling for a raised pattern or surface; make a double sided or double surface cloth; raise the surface as in velvet or toweling.
* Of course each different weave or colouring will require a different set up, but broadly speaking the warp yarns are set up in this way:
* The warps are first measured out so they are of equal length and evenly spaced on a raddle; they are wound securely and with even tension around a warp beam; then they are individually threaded through heddles according to pattern (a heddle is a type of needle, a wire or thread with an eye, which regulates each warp thread; it is hung on a shaft connected to a peddle, which controls the fabric structure); the warp ends are then threaded through a reed, which determines the density of the fabric, i.e. how many warps per inch/cm; finally, the warp ends are tied to the cloth beam or front warp beam.